Sense of Mind: The Formation of the Earth


4.6 billion years ago, the formation of the Salt System began from a gas and dust cloud.

After about 500 million years, our Sun is born in the center of the gas and dust cloud (protoplanetary disk), thermonuclear reactions begin in it.

There is an active process of the formation of the planets of the solar system from the remnants of the gas and dust cloud.

At the time of the launch of thermonuclear reactions near the Sun in the protoplanetary disk, dust formed small stones by accretion.

Heavy elements could, in principle, be evenly distributed in the planetary disk. Although the concentration of heavy elements was negligible in the aggregate percentage, their amount was more than enough to influence the formation of planets.

Due to the effects of various factors (for example, the gravity of the Sun, temperature, the speed of rotation of the protoplanetary disk, the solar wind, which carried away light elements, and other factors), there were significantly more heavy elements in the inner part of the solar system than the average for the protoplanetary disk. … This created the conditions for the formation of rocky planets.

For several tens of millions of years, already rocky structures with a diameter of about a kilometer were formed, the collision of which significantly accelerated the formation time of the planets. Over the next million years, hundreds of planets were formed in the solar system, some larger than Mars.

Our planet Earth is still in an active stage of formation, constantly bombarded by asteroids, having a molten surface of stone and a temperature of 1200 degrees Celsius. The Earth’s atmosphere consisted mainly of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

The last final stage in the formation of the planets was their collision with each other, after which the modern parameters of the orbits, directions of rotation and other orbital and physical characteristics appeared.

4.533 billion years ago, the Earth was already formed, but together with the Earth at one of the Lagrange points, a planet the size of Mars was formed. This hypothetical planet was named Theia.

After the collision, both planets melt, part of the rock and debris from the planet’s surface are thrown into the Earth’s orbit.


From this ring of dust and debris, the moon is believed to have begun to form.

By the time the Moon formed, the Earth began to cool down due to less intense bombardment by asteroids (due to a general decrease in the number of asteroids and due to the fact that the Moon was partially taking the hit on itself).

The formed moon was at a distance, according to some estimates, only 22,000 to 60,000 km from the Earth’s surface. The Earth at that time had a high speed of rotation around its axis — only 6 hours.

290 million years after the formation of the Earth, the Moon was fully formed.

In the periphery of the solar system, where temperatures were much lower, icy planets and comets formed.

Subsequently, the constant bombardment of these celestial bodies for hundreds of millions of years will form the first reservoirs on Earth.

The first reservoirs began to appear 600 million years after the formation of the Earth, after the surface cooled down to 70-80 degrees Celsius. Due to the proximity of the Moon, tidal forces constantly formed super tsunami, and the rapid rotation of the Earth only contributed to their long-term existence. Almost the entire (if not the entire) surface of the Earth was covered with water. It took another 100 million years for the Moon to move away from the Earth, and the Earth’s climate more or less stabilized.

700 million years after the formation of the Earth, continents began to form due to volcanic activity, but small islands formed first.

All this time, the young Earth is bombarded by comets and asteroids from the outskirts of the solar system. The trajectories of comets were mainly influenced by the gravity of gas giants, especially Jupiter, which sent more and more comets to the center of the solar system. The remaining material after the formation of the planets was in abundance, which gave rise to incessant bombardments for millions of years.

Gradually, the water on Earth began to be enriched with minerals and other substances, including organic ones. The original (primary) broth began to appear.

The chemical evolution of matter, during which the first organic molecules were formed from inorganic substances, took place in various places on Earth. This process began to take place already 500 million years after the formation of the Earth.

At this time, the Universe continued to expand and cool, enriching with heavy elements from the explosions of second generation stars. The formation of star systems is a more complex and subtle process than the formation of single stars. And the formation of planets is an even more complex and unstable process, especially for rocky planets, which are rarer than gas giants.

The chemical evolution of matter, in principle, can also take place on gaseous planets in their atmosphere, but the formation of stable organic molecules requires more subtle and specific conditions, as well as energy and chemical resources. We will talk about the main mysteries of the Universe in the next article.


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